The figure beats the previous highest amount from 2017 when the 18 clubs paid about €577 million for new players.
Clubs have revenue from transfers of €657 million, according to a survey by dpa before the close of the transfer window later in the day.
The figures do not include payments for loan deals and possible bonus payments. A total of 26 players were hired on loan.
The Bundesliga’s two leading clubs, Borussia Dortmund (€137 million) and Bayern Munich (€130 million) have spent the most.
At the other end of the scale, promoted Paderborn spent just €150,000 on new signings.
Eintracht Frankfurt (€141.5 million) and Borussia Dortmund (€130.5 million) have earned the most on player sales, while promoted Union Berlin and Werder Bremen had no earnings on sales.
Defender Lucas Hernandez, who moved from Atletico Madrid to Bayern for a Bundesliga record 80 million euros, was the most expensive signing, while Frankfurt had the biggest sale in Luka Jovic to Real Madrid for some €60 million.