GMO promoters winning as major opponent switches camp and Ghana digs heels

RiceIt could be described as a battle to control food security. It could even be seen as a game in which the best and skilful players are maneuvering to take over the entire food production and supply chain with multinationals with all the money, power and influence to do so in the lead.

It could also be seen as major scientific breakthroughs in food production to ensure global food security, but the debate over the safety and sustainability of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) has seen some drama in recent months.

Major turn-around

One of the world’s leading critics of GMO has now become a supporter. The man, Mark Lynas, who is a known climate change campaigner, is now calling on some African countries to embrace biotechnology as a tool to ensure food security.

Lynas is the author of the globally acclaimed book, ’60 Degrees’, which has been translated into 26 languages.

Lynas was reported to have said at Makerere University in Uganda that he changed his mind to stop opposing GM when he realised that scientists, upon whom he depended for climate information, were united in supporting GM technology.

According to him, GM technology offers more benefits to humanity and the environment than dangers.

What is GMO?

The non-profit organisation NON-GMO describes GMOs  “genetically modified organisms,” as plants or animals created through the gene splicing techniques of biotechnology (also called genetic engineering, or GE). This experimental technology merges DNA from different species, creating unstable combinations of plant, animal, bacterial and viral genes that cannot occur in nature or in traditional crossbreeding.

Ghana speeds up GMO efforts

Ghana is one of the African countries that is embarking on a GMO crusade. The country quietly passed the biosafety law on December 31, 2011. Information available to says officials of the country’s Ministry of Agriculture were not even consulted before the law was rushed and passed. They made no input into the law.

The Law, from the Biosafety Act, 831, 2011 will enable Ghana to allow the application of biotechnology in food crop production involving Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) to enter food production.

And  less than two years after passing the law Ghana has started digging its heels in pursing GMOs. The country has started field trials of some crops. According to the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, the country has approved four crops to undergo GMO confined field trials (CFTs).

A Director at the Ministry, Mr Eric Amaning Okoree, has said that rice, sweet potato, cotton and cowpea have so far been approved for CFTs. He was speaking in a presentation at a panel discussion organised by the US Embassy in Accra.

Limited field trials for genetically modified cotton and rice crops in selected areas of the country have already started.

Field trials for Bt. rice which commenced in June is taking place in Fumesua in the Ashanti Region, while field cultivation for Bt. cotton, which also started June 30, 2013, are still ongoing at six locations in six districts of the country.

The sites and districts are Kpalkore in the Mion District, Natagu in the Saboba District; Walewale, West Mamprusi District; Pieng, Sissala East District; Pulima, Sissala West and Yobzeri in the Tolon District, all in Ghana’s Northern Region.

Confined on-station field trials have also been approved in Ghana and structures already put in place for Bt. Cowpea as well as for High Protein Sweet Potato, although planting is yet to start, according to Dr. Emmanuel Chamba, Plant Breeder and Principal Investigator for Bt Cotton research at the CSIR-Savanna Agric. Research Institute (SARI), Nyankpala in Tamale.

The US debates

While in Ghana, there is insignificant opposition and debate about GMOs, in the US, there are worries and intense discussions.

Prof. Jeff Wolt, Professor of Agronomy and Toxicology, Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, Iowa State University has said in 2011 that there are no known dangers from GMOs.

He said in the United States 93% of soybean and over 70% of corn are genetically modified and he said the country has regulatory mechanisms that regulate the safety of GMOs. He indicated that the US started commercializing GMOs in 1996, arguing that scientists have evaluated GMOs and they cannot find any risks. He was of the view that questions about safety are a judgement concerning the perceived risks of GMOs. According to him, scientists have done evaluations and can see no reason that GMOs that are grown in the US and other parts of the world cannot be considered as safe.

He said “there are negligible risks in GMOs, because there are no risks to the population.”

On it’s front page of today August 6, 2013, the Epoch Times of New York reports that the city has joined the GMO labeling debate. The paper starts the report in these words, “No one today can tell if the food they buy is made from genetically modified organisms(GMOs), unless they buy organic food.” In other words organic products are labeled but GMOs are not.

According to the paper three quarters of processed foods on store shelves in the US contain GMO based ingredients, adding that no scientific consensus exists on the safety of GMOs.

The paper adds that while some independent studies claim they are safe, others have identified a range of hazards, including cancer, infertility, and birth defects.

There are some Americans who even believe that GMOs might be responsible for the country’s obesity challenges.

Some even believe that the promotion of GMOs are a subtle attempt to control the world’s population.

“Most genetically modified foods also contain the herbicides they were engineered to resist, the health effects of which are likewise uncertain,” the paper says.

The paper citing a Washington-based non-profit, Food & Water Watch reports that despite overwhelming public support for GMO labeling as shown in dozens of surveys conducted in more than a decade, the effort to get GMOs labeled has met with resistance at the federal level with support of over half a billion dollars spent on lobbying by biotechnology giants like Monsanto, DuPont, and Dow Chemical.

So far in the US, only Connecticut and Maine have passed GMO labeling laws.

Meanwhile, GM corn or maize now makes about 81% of the trade in crops globally and 89% of the soybean supplied between 2009 and 2010 was from GM corn countries, available data shows.

Data also shows that international trade in GM seeds has grown to about $42 billion.

Data from the Iowa State University indicates that more than 70 countries in the world have harmonised their seed policies and regulations since 1992.

As the battle goes on, it is clear that promoters of GMOs are winning, but for how long?

By Emmanuel K. Dogbevi

  1. dr sunny sandhu says

    Ghana u have handed over ur food sovereignity to a very anti freedom nation run by multinationals . I can ensure u in the coming years u will have increased cancer incidence , infertility and dependence on american medicine . Aware countries like france have opposed gmos , and have started moving toward biodynamic farming . That should be ur direction as well

  2. Food Sovereignty Ghana says

    Mark Lynas:
    First of all, Mark Lynas, described as “one of the world’s leading critics of GMO” is false. The man is, a best, a disingenuous hoax. No one knows him as an anti-GMO activist! And he has been very economical with the truth about who is funding his elaborate scam. It is a complete waste of time and an insult to the intelligence of Africans to even give his words any prominence. Here is a quote that Lynas pretty thoroughly from the Union of Concerned Scientists:

    “Lynas’ main charge is that criticism of genetic engineering (GE) in agriculture is anti-science. His focus is on what he calls “the antis”—activists opposed to genetically engineered crops—but by setting up this straw man, and ignoring complex scientific concerns about GE while making summary judgments about its safety and value, he appears to be attempting to discourage real scientific debate.”

    What is a GMO?
    There is a feature article currently on Ghanaweb, GMO imposition on Ghanaians, lessons from Argentina | Feature Article 2013-08-11 In this article you will find information to help update your understanding of what is a GMO. Most definitions tend to “overlook the fact that, each day, there is increasing evidence showing that theories on transgenic modification are not just obsolete but completely mistaken, as they are based on assumptions which have now been proved to be false, for example, the mechanical identification of specific characteristics of a gene. However, the current problem is the immense global power of the biotech industry and its enormous capacity to influence thought and to win contracts.”

    We must not forget that the biotech propaganda is not only about biosafety. It is also about getting us dependent on their hybrid seeds, crops, fertilizers, markets, etc. It is about creating inroads for American agribusiness into our agriculture for the sake of their corporations and not necessarily for the sake of our farmers or the Ghanaian consumer. The fundamental importance of this, especially with the claims that we need GM in order to make plants tolerant to drought, and saline-tolerant, and flood tolerant and all the rest of it in the face of Climate Change, is that all these desirable properties are multi-gene. It is not just one gene that confers these properties unto a plant, but multi-gene families, working in a very co-ordinated way.

    Our position is that GMO technology is a failed technology and cannot deliver these, as it is simply beyond what it can do. Independent experts are telling us for example, ‘What we can do with biotechnology is map the genes within the DNA of the plant, of one variety of plant that says “drought-tolerant”, and another variety of the plant that says “high yielding… we can breed them naturally, and then use gene mapping methods, to identify the plant offspring which combines the genes, the multi-gene families that confer high yield and drought tolerance.” See: US Embassy Must Be Open And Transparent On GMO Debate In Ghana | Food Sovereignty Ghana

    We have more to say, but our comment is already as long as it is. We find it a shame that Ghanaians were even unaware of the intentions and contents of the Biosafety Act. But it is extraordinary surprising that even our own Ministry of Agriculture was not consulted over the purported silver bullet technology that is to solve all our agricultural problems! As it name suggests, we expect the law to protect us, not to open the flood gates for contamination and bio-hazards. But this, apparently is the swindle we never bargained for!

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