Ghana's state-owned enterprises: To privatise or not to privatise?"
Every now and then the issue about the dismal performance of state-owned enterprises in Ghana, and in most parts of Africa for that matter, has come up for discussion. The pertinent, double-barrelled question here is: “Why do State enterprises in Africa fail to live up to expectation? Should they be privatised?” In addressing this question it would be significant to consider what purpose those enterprises were set up to achieve and, also, their relevance both at the time they were established and at present.
Take the Ghana News Agency (GNA) for example. It was inaugurated on the eve of Ghana’s independence as part of a comprehensive communications policy aimed at building a viable, united and cohesive Ghana. Its significance/relevance lies in the compelling need to unify the diverse ethnic groups that came together to form the new Ghana. The GNA has, over the years, played a crucial role in promoting national unity, stability and the national development agenda by providing accurate, objective and unbiased news through its wire service. For more than 50 years now the Agency has been doing what it was set up to do, and creditably too! But what has become of this loyal servant today?
A sweeping glance at the office premises and a brief chat with any member of staff there would provide the observer with all the answers. The predicament in which the Agency currently finds itself and the attitude of Government, its sole financier, are an indication that GNA can no longer depend entirely on State subvention for its existence. This also implies that it cannot continue to operate the same old way it has been doing over the past half century. The world has moved on since 1957, and technology has imposed irreversible changes on events and concepts such as governance, business, information dissemination and, also, priorities. Therefore, the “this-is-the-way-it-has-always-been-done” theory is no longer tenable.
Not very long ago, word went round that the then government was considering placing the distressed national wire service on the divestiture list, but was that the right decision? On the contrary, and to address the question posed at the beginning of this piece, most economists would argue that in the case of most state-owned enterprises that find themselves in similar situations as the GNA, capitalisation and modernisation would be a better option.
Ha-Joon Chang, an economics lecturer at Cambridge University, cautions developing countries like Ghana against the willy-nilly adoption of economic prescriptions such as privatisation, free trade and low government spending, which he terms the “Golden Straight Jacket”. In his much acclaimed book entitled “Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism,” Chang argues that by compelling poor countries to adopt certain economic policies they themselves never practised, today’s rich nations are effectively kicking away the ladder in order to deprive others of the means of climbing up after them.
On the specific issue of non-performing state-owned enterprises, the economist cites as an example the case of the Toyoda (or Toyota) car company in the 1930s, when the Japanese government had to bail it out repeatedly with public funds even though the company failed badly in the initial stages. Thanks to the government’s determined support for the troubled Toyota Company (and that country’s motor industry as a whole) Japan is one of the world’s leading car manufacturers/exporters today. But if the government had donned the Golden Straight Jacket at the time, Toyota Car Company would have probably been liquidated and Japan would have remained a third-rate industrial country with a lower than average income.
Chang points out that even the developed nations nurture and protect their own industries when they find it expedient. Without exception, they have all at one time or the other in the past, employed strategies such as import bans, tariffs and subsidies for the protection and nurturing of selected industries. According to him, Oxfam estimated in 2002 that European citizens were supporting the dairy industry to the tune of £16 billion per year through subsidies and tariffs – an equivalence of more than $2 per cow per day. A vast majority of the population in the developing world continues to live on less than $1 a day. One crucial piece of advice Chang offers to developing countries is that they have to learn to “defy the market” if they want to nurture their fledging industries and say goodbye to poverty.
However, taking a bold measure such as defying the market requires focused leadership and, above all, a national vision which Ghana has lacked since the end of the First Republic. With such a vision, every state-owned enterprise/industry has a specific role to play in the realization of the national dream. This, perhaps, was what distinguished Kwame Nkrumah from other leaders. He had a clear vision for Ghana and worked out calculated policies towards the attainment of that vision.
All the economic policies and textbooks aside, it is commonly obvious that any individual, organization or nation that insists on continuing to do business as usual when the geo-political landscape and market dynamics have undergone fundamental changes, do so at their own peril. Which is why the GNA cannot continue to operate the same way it has done since 1957, and why it would be suicidal for the Agency to place its existence entirely on an ever-dwindling and highly irregular subvention from Government.
It is quite a tricky situation, but for industries/organisations of strategic national importance such as the GNA, outright privatization is hardly the answer. Around 1998/1999, when the Agency was on the brink of collapse, the government at the time came up with a plan, the National Institutional Renewal Programme (NIRP), to rescue the distressed national wire service. Under the NIRP, the Agency was to undergo a major restructuring exercise which basically comprised its recapitalization and retooling over a three-year period after which it would be left to stand on its own.
In the view of this writer, that programme is even more relevant today than ever before, as a self-sufficient GNA would be in the best interest of Government, the Agency and the wider public. An immediate review of the GNA’s instrument of incorporation to enable it to diversify its operations would be a convenient starting point. Next would be the computerization of the entire outfit, including its regional offices, and the provision of means of transport. With adequate work-tools and a well motivated workforce, the Agency would be capable of fending for itself, even as it continues to discharge its mandate with renewed efficiency.
Quite significantly, Chang argues that “The way economies go from being underdeveloped, anaemic and uncompetitive to becoming developed, strong and aggressively competitive is simple and straightforward – Government steps in.” In the same way, strategic national institutions like the Ghana News Agency can grow from dole-dependent, cash-strapped tax burdens to successfully efficient contributors to national income if Government steps in boldly and decisively to help them rebuild their capacity to become competitive.
Credit: Mohammed Nurudeen Issahaq
A very interesting article. I hope that this piece was published in the local Ghanaian Newspapers and read by Ghanaians, and wish that Professor Chang’s book ” Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism” would be a required text in our tertiary institutions.
Sadly, most Ghanaians and Africans for that matter, aren’t aware of how Africans are being fooled by the IMF, World Bank and their Western allies. It has never been in their interest to see Africa develop. The historical and present day facts are there. Anyone that cares to know, should read about the “The Scramble for Africa; Dependency Theory – Core and the Periphery; and also read Prof. Chang’s book”.
Africa has since time immemorial been designated by the West as the place to go for raw materials. If Africans industrialize and turn their raw materials into finished goods, where would the West and others find most of their raw materials?
Commonsense, my friends!
Can someone show me any text in the IMF/World Bank- Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP) for any African country that suggests industrialization? I may be ignorant here, I want someone to enlighten me- tell me about any industrialization policy in any SAP document. I’m yearning to read such a document.
These guys are advising Africans to pursue the dead and buried “laissez-faire” economics, while they have never practised total laissez-faire economics. It saddens me to know that we have people running around with Masters and PhDs in economics, and political economy, who should know better but don’t seem to either care or don’t get it.
If you ask some of them, they would tell you about “Comparative Advantage,” another bogus and deceptive concept that have been used to perpetuate Africa’s underdevelopment.
Nkrumah never dies! Nkrumah was the only Ghanaian leader who understood the whole agenda and had the vision to change that. That was why he tried to industrialize Ghana. He established manufacturing industries to add value to our raw materials to supply most of our needs as a country. Those industries created jobs for the people.
Most of the younger generation may not know that not long ago a visionary leader- Nkrumah made it possible for Ghana to produce, tyres, matches, jute bags, shoes, glass, canned foods, textiles, radios, motor bikes and many other things we now import. He set up research institutions for scientific research to backup our forward march.
Wholesale privatization isn’t a panacea. The business community in Ghana isn’t strong enough to do without gov’t help. In fact, the private sector everywhere relies on government support. As Professor Chang has be quoted above, NO developed country developed without massive gov’t direct involvement.
If a public enterprise like Agric Development Bank is doing well, why privatise the entity outright? The sensible thing to do is to sell some shares to the public to raise needed capital, but maintain controlling shares. More importantly, find QUALIFIED and accountable management teams to run the enterprises that aren’t doing well. If you have qualified management teams who would lead by example, infuse good work ethics and also reward good efforts, workers’ attitudes can be changed and be productive.
I hope and pray that some day we shall find visionary leaders in Ghana and Africa to emancipate the continent. We need selfless, enlightened visionary leaders who would leader by example to inject pride in Ghanaians, to wake up and realize that Ghana belongs to Ghanaians, and no-one from nowhere would come and make it better for us. We have to make it better for ourselves and posterity. Long live Ghana!!!